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34. Recreation and Wildlife Activity in the Wood River Valley

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Sarah Coose, Edward Trout, Dr. Neil Carter, Dr. Kelly Hopping, Kris Thoreson, Greg Hill


As the human population grows, humans and animals increasingly share space – potentially leading to human-wildlife conflict in natural spaces.


Data Collection

Deployed 48 infrared-trigger field cameras along various trails in the Wood River Valley.

Spatial Analysis : Hurdle Model

Uses binomial andnegative binomial regression to describe  whether number of human detections is correlated with the presence or absence and/or abundance of a species.

Temporal Analysis: Coefficient of Overlap

Describes how much the temporal activity patterns each species overlaps with human recreation.


Binomial regression

There was no significant correlation between number of human detections and the presence or absence of any species.

Negative binomial regression (n = 48)

  • High recreation correlates with low abundance of elk (p = 0.004).
  • High recreation correlates with high abundance of bear (p = 0.012), coyote (p = <0.001), and wolf (p = <0.001).

Temporal analysis

There was a general trend of two groups of animals – one with high coefficients of overlap and one with a low coefficients of overlap

Further Details

Spatial Analysis : Hurdle Model

Binomial regression example

Graph of coyote presence and absence in relation to human detections

Higher number of human detections correlated with a higher probability of coyote presence.

Negative Binomial Regression example

Coyote abundance - compares coyote detections against human detections

Higher number of human detections correlated with higher number of coyote detections

Temporal Analysis: Coefficients of Overlap

Mean coefficient of overlap with 95% CI. General trend shows coyote, bear, and moose with high overlap and elk, mountain lion, and wolf with low overlap.

chart of Temporal overlap with human recreation by species and proportion of overlap

Many species use the same trails as humans, but different strategies in how they spend their time.

High Human Overlap

bear and coyote on trails during daytime
Time chart of human, bear, coyote, and moose with frequent overlaps between 6:00 and 18:00 hours
Strategy 1: High human overlap. These species were active at similar times to humans.

Low Human Overlap

elk and cougar on trails at night
Chart of human, deer, elk, mountain lion and wolf with less frequent overlaps between 6:00 and 18:00 hours
Strategy 2: Low human overlap. These species were active at different times than humans.


High recreation correlated with higher presence of bear, coyote and wolf. However, these species utilized different temporal strategies.

Additional Information

For questions or comments about this research, contact Sarah Coose at