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Dr. Clark’s Publications

Dr. Clark speaking with someone at a conference

Cynthia M. Clark PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN
Founder of Civility Matters™ https://www.boisestate.edu/research-ott/civility-matters/
Professor Emeritus Boise State University cclark@boisestate.edu
LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/cynthia-clark-rn-phd-anef-faan/

Books

Clark, C.M. (2022). Core Competencies of Civility in Nursing & Healthcare, 1st ed. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International Publishing. Translated into Japanese for dissemination throughout Japan.

In Core Competencies of Civility in Nursing & Healthcare, Cynthia Clark—a nurse-leader dedicated to organizational change and an unwavering advocate for civility and dignity for all—provides an abundance of practical solutions to create and sustain communities of civility, diversity, inclusion, and respect in academic and healthcare environments. Using a wealth of evidence-based interventions, hands-on tools, and scholarly resources, this book expands current thinking on the topic of civility to create and support healthy, productive work and learning environments for the benefit of all.

Core competencies of Civility book cover
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Core Competencies of Civility in Nursing & Healthcare can be purchased on the Sigma Marketplace website.

Clark, C. M. (2017). Creating and sustaining civility in nursing education, 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International Publishing.

This highly anticipated, fully revised second edition revisits and augments the award-winning Creating & Sustaining Civility in Nursing Education. In this comprehensive new guide, author Cynthia Clark explores the problem of incivility within nursing academe and provides practical solutions that range from ready-to-use teaching tools to principles for broad-based institutional change. She further explores the cost and consequences of incivility, its link to stress, ways to identify the problem, and how to craft a vision for change-including bridging the gap between nursing education and practice.

Creating and sustaining civility in nursing education book cover

Creating & Sustaining Civility in Nursing Education, Second Edition, can be purchased on the Sigma Marketplace website.

Brief description of Creating & Sustaining Civility in Nursing Education, 2nd. ed., can be found in the Creating and Sustaining Civility flyer.

Free book discussion questions regarding Creating & Sustaining Civility in Nursing Education, 2nd ed., can be found in the discussion questions PDF.

Clark, C. M. (2013). Creating and sustaining civility in nursing education. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International Publishing. First place winner, 2013 American Journal of Nursing (AJN) Book of the Year Award; Professional Issues Category.

In Progress

Clark, C.M., Davis, S., Kuhl, L., Priddy, K., & Robinson, M.D. Conceptualizing the influence of diversity, equity, inclusion, belonging on professional identity in nursing, Prepared for the Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing

In Review

Stephens, T.M. & Clark, C.M. Civility and resilience practices to address chronic workplace stress in nursing academia, Prepared for Teaching and Learning in Nursing

In Press

Ribeiro dos Santos, V., Clark, C.M., Benedita dos Santos, C., Maroco, J., Bodini, J., Apolloni Eduardo, A.H., & Campos de Carvalho, E. Psychometric properties of the Incivility in Nursing Education – Revised Survey – Brazilian version, Prepared in Portuguese for Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem.

Clark, C. M. Addressing Gaslighting in Nursing Academe Using Cognitive Rehearsal, Prepared for Teaching and Learning in Nursing

Published works

Landis, T., Barbosa-Leiker, C., Clark, C.M., & Godfrey, N. (2024). Professional Identity in Nursing Scale 2.0: A national study of nurses’ professional identity and psychometric properties, Journal of Professional Nursing, 50, 61-65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2023.11.004

Clark, C.M. (2023). Implementing trauma-informed teaching & learning principles in nursing education, Journal of Nursing
Education, 62(3), 133-138. doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20230109-02

Clark, C.M, Kardong-Edgren, S., & Willhaus, J. (2023). Pilot study using cognitive rehearsal, simulation, and biomarker data to address workplace incivility, Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 54(2), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20230113-07

10 ways to build psychological safety at work, Sigma Nursing Centered,
https://nursingcentered.sigmanursing.org/topics/career/stories/view/10-ways-to-build-psychological-safety-at-work

Clark, C.M., Gorton, K., & Bentley, A. (2022). Civility: A concept analysis revisited, Nursing Outlook. 70(2), 259-270.  doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.11.001

Clark, C.M. (2022). Taking an Honest Gaze in the Civility Mirror, Nursing Centered, Sigmahttps://nursingcentered.sigmanursing.org/topics/leadership/stories/view/taking-an-honest-gaze-in-the-civility-mirror

Landis, T., Godfrey, N., Barbosa-Leiker, C., Clark, C.M., et al (2022). National study of nursing faculty and administrators’ perceptions of professional identity in nursing, Nurse Educator, 47(1), 13-18doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000001063.

Clark C. M., Landis T. T., Barbosa-Leiker C. (2021). National study on faculty and administrators’ perceptions of civility and incivility in nursing education. Nurse Educator, 46(5), 276-283. https://doi.org/10.1097/nne.0000000000000948

Clark, C.M. (2021). Connecting and healing through the superpower of kindness, Guest editorial, Journal of Nursing Education, 60(6), 307-308. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20210520-01

Smallheer, B., Gedzyk-Nieman, S., Molloy, M., Clark, C.M., Gordon, H., & Morgan, B. (2021). Faculty development workshop on gender-associated incivility in nursing education. Nursing Forum, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12615.

Sommer, S., Johnson, J., Clark, C.M., & Mills (2021). Assisting learners to understand and incorporate functions of clinical judgment into nursing practice. Nurse Educator, 46(6):372-375. https://doi.org/10.1097/nne.0000000000001020

Clark, C.M. (2020). Gaslighting, betrayal, and a culture of fear: Are we moving the civility needle in nursing education? Sigma Nursing Centered,
https://nursingcentered.sigmanursing.org/topics/research/stories/view/gaslighting-betrayal-and-a-culture-of-fear

Clark, C.M. (2020). Responding to the shock of incivility with evidence, courage, and respect. Nursing the Future, https://nursingthefuture.ca/newsletter-index/

Clark, C.M. (2020). Resiliency rising! Ten just-in-time self-care strategies, American Nurse Journal, https://www.myamericannurse.com/resiliency-rising/

Clark, C.M. (2020). An ‘upstanding’ approach to address bullying in nursing, American Nurse Journal, 15(9), 31-34.

Clark, C.M. (2020). The imperative of civility in uncertain times, Nurse Educator, 45(4), 173. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000874

Clark, C.M., & Fey, M.K. (2020). Fostering civility in learning conversations: Introducing the PAAIL communication strategy, Nurse Educator. 45(3), 139-143. https://doi:  10.1097/NNE.0000000000000731

Clark, C.M., & Dunham, M. (2020). Civility Mentor: A virtual learning experience, Nurse Educator, 45(4), 189-192. https://doi: 10.1097/ nne.0000000000000757

Clark C.M. & Luparell, S. (2020). Cyber-incivility, cyber-bullying, and other forms of online aggression: A call to action for nursing education, Nurse Education Today, 85. https://doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104310

Clark, C. M., & Gorton, K. (2019). Cognitive Rehearsal, HeartMath, and Simulation: Interventions to build resilience and address incivility, Journal of Nursing Education, 58(12), 690-697. https://doi:10.3928/01484834-20191120-03

Clark, C.M. (September 2019). A Nurse’s Tale. Reflections on Nursing Leadership

Clark, C.M. Fostering a culture of civility and respect in nursing, Journal of Nursing Regulation, 10(1), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2155-8256(19)30082-1

Clark, C.M. (2019). Accused of workplace bullying: what happens next? American Nurse Today, 14(3), 24-26.

Clark, C.M. (2019). Combining Cognitive Rehearsal, simulation, and evidence-based scripting to address incivility. Nurse Educator, 44(2), 64-68. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000563 Winner of the 2020 Kathleen T Heinrich Dare to Share Writing Award.

Clark, C.M. (January 29, 2019). Ending the silence: Antidote to incivility. Reflections on Nursing Leadership,

Clark, C.M., Barbosa-Leiker, C., & Sattler, V. (2018). Development and psychometric testing of the Workplace Civility Index: A reliable tool to assess workplace civility, Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 49(9), 400-406. https://doi: 10.3928/00220124-20180813-05

Clark, C.M. & Ritter, K. (2018). Policy to foster civility and support a healthy academic work environment. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(6), 325-331. https://doi: 10.3928/01484834-20180522-02

Clark, C.M. (March 1, 2018). In pursuit of empathy. Reflections on Nursing Leadership

Clark, C.M. (2018). Top ten tips to increase employee engagement! American Nurse Today, 13(1), 12-14.

Clark, C.M. How nurses can plant the seeds of civility, Nursing Management; United Kingdom. Available at: https://rcni.com/nursing-management/opinion/comment/how-nurses-can-plant-seeds-of-civility-125571

Clark, C.M. (December, 2017). Seeking civility among faculty, The ASHA Leader. Available at: http://leader.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664636 https://doi:10.1044/leader.FTR2.22122017.54

Clark, C.M. (2017). An evidence-based approach to integrate civility, professionalism, and ethical practice into nursing curricula, Nurse Educator, 42(3):120-126. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000331

Clark, C.M. (March 7, 2017). The path to organizational civility is marked PFOC: It leads to a healthy workplace! Reflections on Nursing Leadership.

Clark, C.M. & Kenski, D. (2017). Promoting civility in the OR: An ethical imperative, AORN, 105(1), 60–66. https://doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2016.10.019

Clark, C.M. (December 19, 2016). The imperative of PEAK Leadership, Reflections on Nursing Leadership

Clark, C.M. (2016). Principled leadership and the imperative for workplace civility, American Nurse Today, 11(11), 32-33.

Clark, C.M., Sattler, V. P., Barbosa-Leiker, C (2016). Development and testing of the Healthy Work Environment Inventory (HWEI): A reliable tool for assessing work environment health and satisfaction, Journal of Nursing Education, 55(10), 555-562. https://doi: 10.3928/01484834-20160914-03

De Gagne, J.C., Choi, M., Ledbetter, L., Kang, H.S., & Clark, C.M. (Published ahead of print; March 28, 2016). An integrative review of cybercivility in health professions education, Nurse Educator. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000264

Clark, C.M. (November, 2015). Conversations to inspire and promote a more civil workplace: Let’s end the silence that surrounds incivility, American Nurse Today, 10(11), 18-23.

Clark, C.M., Barbosa-Leiker, C., & Gill, L., Nguyen, D.T. (2015). Revision and psychometric testing of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey: Introducing the INE-R, Journal of Nursing Education, 54(6), 306-315. https://doi:10.3928/01484834-20150515-01

Saltzberg, C.W., & Clark, C.M. (August, 2015). A bold call to action: Mobilizing nurses and employers to prevent and address incivility, bullying, and workplace violence, American Nurse Today, (10), 8.

Clark, C.M. (2015). The power and potential of positive mentoring, Nurse Educator, 40(3), 109-110. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000158

Griffin, M. & Clark, C.M. (2014). Revisiting Cognitive Rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later, Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 45(12), 535-542.

Nickitas, D.M. (2014). Fostering Civility: An interview with Cynthia Clark, Nursing Economic$, 32(6), 306-311.

Clark, C.M., Ahten, S.M., & Macy, R. (2014). Nursing graduates’ ability to address incivility: Kirkpatrick’s level-3 evaluation, Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(8), 425–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2014.04.005

Clark, C. M. (2014). Seeking civility: Strategies to create and sustain healthy workplaces, American Nurse Today, 9(7), 18-21.

Clark, C.M., Nguyen, D., & Barbosa-Leiker, C. (2014). Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study, Nurse Educator, 39(4), 170-174. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000049

Clark, C. M. (2014). A formula for collaborative writing [invited editorial], Journal of Nursing Education, 53(3), 119-120. https://doi: 10.3928/01484834-20140220-10

Trossman, S. (Jan/Feb 2014). Code red. Code blue. Code pink? Interview with Cynthia Clark. The American Nurse (Official publication of the American Nurses Association).

Clark, C.M. (October 1, 2013). Building civility capacity in nursing practice, ADVANCE for Nurses magazine. http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Building-Civility-Capacity-in-Nursing.aspx

Clark, C.M. (September 23, 2013). The pedagogy of civility: innovative strategies to create an engaged learning environment, Academic Consulting Group, Elsevier Publishers. https://pages.evolve.elsevier.com/White-Paper_The-Pedagogy-of-Civility-Innovative-Strategies-to-Create-an-Engaged-Learning-Environment.html

Clark, C.M. (2013). Two-part series: Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 39(3), Sigma Theta Tau International Part I—Civility CAN be Learned!

Clark, C.M. & Landrum, R. E., Nguyen. (2013). Development and Description of the Organizational Civility Scale, Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 17(1), 11-17.

Clark, C.M. (April/May 2013). Stress, coping, healing and the quest for civility, Imprint: The Professional Magazine for Student Nurses, 34-39.

Clark, C.M. (2013). National study on faculty-to-faculty incivility: Strategies to foster collegiality and civility, Nurse Educator, 38(3), 98-102. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e31828dc1b2

Clark, C.M., Olender, L., Kenski, D., & Cardoni, C. (2013). Exploring and addressing faculty-to-faculty incivility in nursing education: A national perspective and literature review, Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4),211-218. https://doi:10.3928/01484834-20130319-01 Winner of the 2013 Journal of Nursing Education (JNE) Christine Tanner Scholarly Writing Award.

Clark, C.M., Ahten, S.M. Macy, R, (2012). Using Problem Based Learning (PBL) scenarios to prepare nursing students to address incivility, Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(3), e75-e83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2011.10.003

Clark, C.M. (2013). Two-part series: Fostering civility in nursing education and practice, Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 39(1), Sigma Theta Tau International Part II—Cindy’s ‘Five RITES’ for fostering student-driven civility.

Clark, C.M. (2012). Two-part series: Fostering civility in nursing education and practice, Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 38(4), Sigma Theta Tau International, Part I—Students, Jedi Knights and the Promise of Civility.

Clark, C.M., Juan, C.M., Allerton, B., Otterness, N., Jun, W.Y, & Wei, F. (2012). Faculty and student perception of academic incivility in the People’s Republic of China, Journal of Cultural Diversity,19(3),85-93.

Clark, C.M., Werth, L., & Ahten, SM. (2012). Cyber-bullying and incivility in the online learning environment: Part Two- Promoting student success in the virtual classroom, Nurse Educator, 37(4), 192-197. https://doi:10.1097/NNE.0b013e318262eb2b

Clark, C.M., Werth, L., & Ahten, S. (2012). Cyber-bullying and incivility in the online learning environment: Part One – Addressing faculty and student perceptions, Nurse Educator, 37(4), 150-156. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e31825a87e5

Clark, C. M., Springer, P. J. (2012, August). Nurse residents’ firsthand accounts on transition to practice. Nursing Outlook, 60(4), E2-E8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2011.08.003

Clark, C.M. (Spring, 2012). Healing from the bitter pill of incivility, Minority Nurse. 32-34.

Clark, C.M., Belcheir, M., Strohfus, P., & Springer, P.J. (2012). Development and description of the Culture and Climate Assessment Scale, Journal of Nursing Education, 51(2), 75-80. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20111230-01

Springer, P.J., Clark, C.M., Strohfus, P., & Belcheir M. (2012). Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a School of Nursing, Journal of Nursing Education, 51(2), 81-88. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20111230-02

Clark, C. M., Olender, L., Cardoni, C., & Kenski, D. (2011). Perspectives of nurse leaders in clinical practice on fostering civility in nursing education and practice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(7/8), 324-330. https://doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e31822509c4

Clark, C. M. (2011). In pursuit of a vision of civility: Transforming the culture in one school of nursing. Nurse Educator, 36((3), 98-102. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e3182161238

Clark, C. M., & Davis-Kenaley, B. L. (2011). Faculty empowerment of students to foster civility in nursing education: A merging of two conceptual models. Nursing Outlook, 59(3),158-165. https://doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2010.12.005

Clark, C. M., & Ahten, S. M. (2011, August 19). Nurses: Resetting the civility conversation. Medscape Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/748104?src=mp&spon=24

Clark, C. M., & Ahten, S. M. (2011b, March 24). The downward spiral: Incivility in nursing/Interviewer: Laura A. Stokowski. Medscape Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/739328

Clark, C. M., & Ahten, S. M. (Fourth Quarter, 2010). Beginning the conversation: The nurse educator’s role in preventing incivility in the workplace. RN Idaho, 33(3), 1, 5–6.

Clark, C.M., Otterness, N., Jun, W.Y, Allerton, B., Black, M., Juan, C.M., & Wei, F. (2010). Descriptive study of student incivility in the People’s Republic of China, Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(4), 136–150.

Clark, C.M. & Springer, P.J. (2010). Academic nurse leaders’ role in fostering a culture of civility in nursing education, Journal of Nursing Education, 49(6), 319-325. https://doi: 10.3928/01484834-20100224-01

Clark, C.M. (2010). Five-part series: Fostering civility in nursing education and practice, Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 36(1), Sigma Theta Tau International.

The Sweet Spot of Civility: My Story

Why Civility Matters

What Faculty Can Do To Foster Civility

What Students Can Do To Foster Civility:

From incivility to civility: Transforming the culture

Clark, C. M. (2009). Faculty field guide for promoting student civility, Nurse Educator, 34(5), 194-197. https://doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e3181b2b589

Clark, C. M., Farnsworth, J., & Landrum, R. E. (2009). Development and description of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey, Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 13(1), 7-15.

Clark, C.M. (2008). The dance of incivility in nursing education as described by nursing faculty and students, Advances in Nursing Science, 31(4), E37-E54. https://doi:10.1097/01.ANS.0000341419.96338.a3

Clark, C.M. & Carnosso, J. (2008). Civility: A concept analysis. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 12(1), 11-15.

Clark, C. M., Farnsworth, J., & Springer, P. J. (2008). Policy development for disruptive student behaviors. Nurse Educator, 33(6), 259-262. https://doi:10.1097/01.NNE.0000334791.07428.61

Clark, C.M. (2008). Faculty and student assessment and experience with incivility in nursing education: A national perspective. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(10), 458-465. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20081001-03

Clark, C. M. (2008). Student perspectives on incivility in nursing education: An application of the concept of Rankism. Nursing Outlook, 56(1), 4-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2007.08.003

Clark, C. M. (2008). Student voices on faculty incivility in nursing education: A conceptual model. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(5), 284-289. https://doi: 10.3928/01484834-20081001-03

Clark, C. M., & Springer, P. J. (2007). Incivility in nursing education: Descriptive study on definitions and Prevalence, Journal of Nursing Education, 46(1), 7-14. https://doi: 10.3928/0148483420070101-03

Clark, C. M., & Springer, P. J. (2007). Thoughts on incivility: Student and faculty perceptions of uncivil behavior in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(2), 93-97.

Clark, C.M. (2006). Student Voices: Perceptions of Faculty Incivility. In K.M. Kolanko, C. Clark, K.T. Heinrich, D. Olive, J.F. Serembus, & K.S. Sifford (Eds.), Academic dishonesty, bullying, incivility, and violence: Difficult challenges facing nurse educators, Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(1), 34-43.

Book Chapters

Clark, C. M. (2022). Promoting civility and healthy work environments in nursing and health care, In C.J. Huston (Ed.). Professional issues in nursing: Challenges and opportunities. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Clark, C.M. (2013). Leadership and a culture of recovery,  In Morgan, C. & Crowley, K.C. Reentry and Recovery for Nurses with Substance Use Disorders. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International Publishing.

Heinrich, K. T., Clark, C.M., & Luparell, S. (2007). In K.T. Heinrich (Ed.), Yours, mine & ours: The secret of cosmic connections. A Nurse’s Guide to Presenting and Publishing: Dare to share, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

 

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