The National Institutes of Health has changed the policy regarding resubmissions as of April 2014. Under old policy a project could be submitted for funding consideration, and resubmitted once after improving the proposal. This will not change under the new policy, however after an unsuccessful submission there is now an opportunity to submit the project as a new application without any association to the prior submission.
Summarized from “NIH Has Changed the Resubmission Policy for Grant Applications” by Dale Birkle Dreer, Ph.D from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research Blog.
If you would like assistance understanding peer reviewer comments, scoring, and/or developing a resubmission strategy, do not hesitate to contact the COHS Office of Research for support.