China Country Profile
Prepared by: Capital High School Delegation for Idaho Model U.N. – 2023
China’s source of power and authority is the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) which controls the military, society and economy. The CCP demonstrates the nomenklatura system. Starting at the bottom they have the party congress, then the central committee, the politburo, the politburo standing committee and finally the chairman. The politburo is the policy making committee within the CCP. People are elected into the party congress and then voted to move up in the party by the upper congress’s. The CCP is aligned with the Chinese Government which follows the same format. The CCP and the government work together and the people that are in one are often in the other. The government has the National People’s congress, the standing committee and at the top the president. The state council standing committee which has 10
members votes for the president. China has a unitary form of government, where all power is concentrated at the national level. This allows
China to have uniform and efficient policies throughout the country. China has a unicameral legislature, the National People’s Congress (NPC). The NPC has approximately 150 members and their primary job is to enact laws. Although the communist party is the center of the Chinese government they also have eight other parties that the CCP can approve of. The other parties are not distinct in their policies, but they can be elected to the National People’s congress.
Major players in current Chinese government:
● Xi Jingping – President (Chinese Communist Party)
● Fu Zhenghua – Minister of Justice
● Miao Wei – Minister of Industry and Information Technology
● Zhao Leji –
● Li Qiang – Chinese politician and a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
China has the second largest economy in the world when measured by GDP but the largest when accounting for currency differences. Despite certain narratives, roughly 40% of Chinese business is partially or fully privately owned. The economy has grown substantially since the 1970s when China transitioned from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy, thanks to government policies. To export industrial goods, China’s east coast has many ports and shipping centers that attract migrants from the interior, creating new jobs. China’s industries are technologically focused, the main exports include broadcasting equipment, computers, and circuits. The main countries that China exports to are The United States, Japan, and South Korea.
China has the world’s largest military based on active personnel. China’s most prominent geopolitical rival is the United States of America. China’s military has approximately 2.2 million active duty troops with a large annual budget. In the 2021 fiscal year China spent 1.36 trillion yuan (roughly $209.16 billion usd) on defense. China’s military includes China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLAN) which is their main military force. China’s navy is the largest in the world with over 360 vessels and ships. China uses new technologies to fend off threats including J-20 and J-17 stealth fighter jets. One of China’s main national security goals is to oppose and contain Taiwan defiance towards
China’s laws. China adheres to a peaceful reunification with Taiwan by adopting a one country two systems plan in order to promote peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. China opposes any foreign involvement to split the country and will respond to any organization, foreign entity, or individual that attempts to divide China from Taiwan or any other territory that falls under the republic of China’s
jurisdiction with all necessary measures. We do not renounce the use of force in order to protect China’s territories. The people’s liberation army has had a rich and deep history supporting China and its national goals. First coming into prominence under the leadership under Mao Zedong in an effort to curb the effects of the vicious Japanese attacks against the people of China, with tracking thousands of kilometers
to protect the Chinese people and Safeguard our culture. The People’s Liberation Army has played a vital and important role in the creation of The People’s Republic of China promoting China and its values. The Liberation Army has and continues to transform into a world-class Force so that it doesn’t protect China and its people while also promoting world peace through its contributions to the United nations.
Role in the United Nations
China is one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council. The Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN upon its founding in 1945, and since 1990, China has dispatched over 50,000 peacekeepers to nearly 30 UN peacekeeping missions. It is the second largest funding contributor to UN peacekeeping operations and an important troop provider, contributing more peacekeepers than any other permanent members of the Security Council, primarily in African theaters, such as South Sudan, Mali, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. These large troop contributions started between 2003-04, with a sharp increase of 358 to 1,036 troops supplied. The current UN representative of China is Zhang Jun. China is the second largest contributor to the UN
peacekeeping budget, now roughly $6 billion USD a year, covering 15% of costs, and has sent more peacekeepers to UN missions than any other permanent member of the Security Council. China is a partner providing technical expertise and support, both within and beyond its national boundaries, including in its activities under the framework of South-South Cooperation. On the Security Council, China continues to sign on to treaties to promote the growth of global human rights, such as: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). The current president, Xi Jinping, has taken a much more assertive foreign policy with recent actions. Xi Jinping controls elite groups of the government within the communist party directly. They’ve been much more involved in territorial disputes internationally, China has also used its economic and soft power to get its way on the world stage.