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Country Profile: Mexico

1. Official Country name
1.1. United Mexican States
1.2. Estados Unidos Mexicanos
2. Government System: a federal republic based on presidential democracy
2.1. Republic
2.2. Presidential system
2.3. Federal republic
2.4. Constitutional republic
3. Head of State
3.1. Andrés Manuel López Obrador
4. How would you characterize the political situation in your country? Stable? In turmoil?-
The official government is not being contested for power however powerful drug cartels
are causing serious chaos in the country.
5. Has your country been in the news lately? If so, why?
5.1. Yes for droughts regarding climate change and its effect on jobs, border
issues with the U.S and Mexico providing 1.5 billion dollars to the U,S to help
manage migrants on the southern border. Drug issues

6. Official Language
6.1. Spanish
6.2. Many native languages
7. Region
7.1. Central America
8. Allies or blocs: Latin America Group
9. What countries are your immediate neighbors?
9.1. USA, Belize, and Guatemala
10. Population and Growth Rate- 119 Million
11. Major Religions:
Catholic, Protestant, Pentecostal
12. Major Cultures:
Mestizo, a mixture of European and Native American, descent. Indigenous groups within
Mexico include, Nahuas, Otomis, Mayas, Zapotecs, Tzeltales, and Tzotziles.
13. Standard of Living Human Development Index score: of 0.779 = 74 out of 189 countries

14. Development Status: Developing Country
15. What is the literacy rate of your nation?- 90+%
16. Climate: Tropical
17. Environment-High mountains and deep canyons in the center of the country, sweeping
deserts in the north, and dense rain forests in the south and east.
17.1. Problems
Criminal justice
Military abuse
Violence towards journalists
17.2. Innovations-
Color television
Earthquake resistant foundation
Modern computer devices
18. Economic System: Capitalism
19. GDP and Growth Rate: 1.076 Trillion USD 1.20%
20. Major Cities- Mexico City, Puerta Vallarta, Cancun, Tijuana
Mexico City, Monterrey, Guadalajara
21. Infrastructure- Mexico ranks 54th in the infrastructure pillar of the 2019 Global
Competitive Index
22. Trade blocs, associations-World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC), the G-20, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD).
23. Balance of payments/trade- The trade deficit of goods in Mexico amounted to about
24.42 billion U.S. dollars
24. Major exports:
machinery and transport equipment, steel, electrical equipment, chemicals, food
products, and petroleum and petroleum products
25. Major imports-
Integrated circuits, motor vehicles, office machine parts, telephones.
26. Major trade partners-
The United States receives 80% of all exports

27. International Monetary Fund, World Bank positions (debtor nation? donor nation?):
28. Natural Resources One of the Largest Producers- Oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, and wood
29. Energy Sources-
Oil and gas
30. Military Organization-
Mexican Army and Mexican Navy
31. Percent of GDP spent on defense-
0.7% of GDP
32. Major weapons, nuclear capabilities, etc-
Mexico is able to create Nuclear Weapons but has decided not to in the treaty of
33. Date admitted to the U.N.-
November 7, 1945
34. UN dues payment status:


35. Has the UN ever intervened in a conflict involving this nation? If so, where and how?-


36. How does the country contribute to UN peacekeeping?
Mexico contributes troops to UN peacekeeping efforts.
37. Has the UN cited this nation for human rights violations? If so, why?
Yes, security forces have committed multiple human rights violations, enforced
disappearances, and torture.
38. What do you think this nation’s position on the topic of debate will be? Why?
38.1. Com. 1 Human trafficking prevention and safe immigration and trade.
38.2. Com. 2
38.3. Com. 30
38.4. UNSC – anti-Taliban and pro-women's rights
39. Try to find at least one recent article that is about or makes reference to this nation
(preferably from the past two weeks)
Earthquake shakes Mexico City on Anniversary (BBC)

40. What are four problems that affect this nation?
Climate Change, Drugs, Mass Emigration, Poverty & overcrowding
41. Ethnic/cultural issues, if any:
Racial inequality
Women's rights
LGBTQIA+ discrimination
42. Refugee problems: Mexico takes most refugees from Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
that are turned away from America
43. Major conflicts both past and present:
Mexican American War
44. What is your country doing in regards to the U.N. SDGs?
44.1. All goals
44.2. No Poverty – # of the population living under $1.25 a day halved
44.3. Zero Hunger – The office of the president of Mexico created a committee
called the Specialized Technical Committee of the Sustainable Development
Goals, they work to make free open-border access for more accessible goods.
44.4. Good health and well-being – Not much in specific
44.5. Quality Education – No, children in Mexico don't have a good education
with most of the kids having the worst literacy, math, and science skills and
most/half of the children failing to meet basic standards. Especially with only 45%
of them finishing secondary school.
44.6. Gender Equality – Women are held in relatively high regard in Mexico but
still face some forms of economic and social oppression.
44.7. Clean Water and Sanitation – Some cities in Mexico have access to
drinkable tap water and sanitation, but others don’t. Some cities have to use
bottled water because drinkable tap isn’t as accessible.
44.8. Affordable and Clean Energy- In 2021, the Mexican government’s energy
development plan reported power generation in Mexico accounted for
328,597.98 GWh, of which 29.5 percent was generated with clean energy
sources, including wind, solar photovoltaic, bioenergy, efficient cogeneration,
geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power.

44.9. Decent Work and Economic Growth- Mexico’s economy is especially
strong in the service sector. In the 1st quarter of 2022, this sector represented
63.32% of GDP and employed 61.07% of the labor force, while the industrial
sector represented 28.92% of GDP and employed 25.12% of the labor force, and
the primary sector represented 3.35% of GDP and employed 13.25% of the labor
44.10. Reduced Inequalities- Mexico has a much higher level of income
inequality than other OECD countries. The Gini coefficient in Mexico is (0.45), far
exceeding the OECD average of (0.37).
44.11. Sustainable Cities and Communities-Mexico city has planted 20 million
trees to reduce emissions by 30 percent, created a new clean energy
transportation system, expanded the use of solar in hospitals and other public
buildings, and retrofitted new building codes.
44.12. Climate Action-By 2030, Mexico, has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions by 22%. Latin America's second-largest economy is also a participant
in a global initiative to reduce methane emissions.